Computer Network and its Component

by anupmaurya
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What is Computer network?

computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes.
Components Of Computer Network
Components Of Computer Network

Hardware Components Of Computer Network

Server: Servers are computers that runs operating system and hold data that can be shared over a computer network.

Client: A client is a computer that is connected to other computers in the network and can receive data sent by other computers.

Transmission Media: All computers in a computer network are connected with each other through a transmission media such as wires, optical fibre cables, coaxial cables etc.

Network Interface card: Each system or computer in a computer network must have a card called network interface card (NIC). The main purpose of NIC is to format the data, send the data and receive the data at the receiving node.

Hub: Hub acts as a device that connects all the computer in a network to each other. Any request that comes from a client computer first received by Hub and then hub transmit this request over a network so that the correct server receives and respond to it.

Switch: Switch is similar to hub however instead of broadcasting a incoming data request it uses the physical device address in the incoming request to transfer the request to correct server computer.

Router: Router joins multiple computer networks to each other. For example lets say a company runs 100 computers over a local area network(LAN) and another company runs another LAN of 150 computers. These both LANs can be connected with each other through a internet connection which is provided by the router.

LAN cable: A wire that is used to connect more than one computers or other devices such as printers and scanner to each other.

Software Components Of Computer Network

  • Networking Operating System − Network Operating Systems is typically installed in the server and facilitate workstations in a network to share files, database, applications, printers etc. Some examples of network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Novell NetWare, and BSD.
  • Protocol Suite − A protocol is a rule or guideline followed by each computer for data communication. A protocol suite is a set of related protocols that are laid down for computer networks. The two popular protocol suites are −              
    1. OSI Model ( Open System Interconnections)
    2.  TCP / IP Model

Advantages of Computer Network

There are many advantages of computer network and benefits of computer networking, some of them are File sharing, Resource sharing, Better connectivity and communications is briefly explained below.

  • File sharing: Fundamental goals of a computer network is to allow file sharing and remote file access.
  • Server-Client model: Client-server model is a distributed application framework. The server is a master system which stores the data and provides the processing service. A client is a user system which accesses the data from the server and can perform processing in its system or in a server system.
  • Resource sharing: All the resources such as printers, modems, scanners and fax machines etc can be shared by all the system in a computer network.
  • Better connectivity and communications: A computer network allows all the user or computers at a different location to communicate easily, widely used example is email, video conference etc.

Disadvantages of Computer Network

There are many disadvantages of computer network of computer networking, some of them are Lack of data security and privacy, Independence, Robustness is briefly explained below.

  • Lack of data security and privacy due to the huge number of the user accessing the internet from every corner of the earth, handling data is a challenging task and data can be stolen which violate the privacy of the user.
  • Presence of computer viruses and the malware: A virus can easily spread through an interconnected workstation or over the internet which can damage or steal the data from the computer system in a computer network.
  • Lack of Independence: In most cases, the client is dependent on the centralized server and client user lack any freedom whatsoever. the centralized server can make hinder in the decision making of the user system.
  • Lack of Robustness: As a client is dependent on the centralized server, if the centralized server breaks down, the entire system of networks would be useless and also if any of the links between the end system fail then the network will standstill.
  • Need an efficient handler: As a computer network consisting of many devices and software, so to handle the smooth functioning of the transmission of information, it requires high technical skills and knows- how its administration and its operations.

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