by anupmaurya
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B-tree is a self-balancing tree data structure that maintains sorted data and allows searches, sequential access, insertions, and deletions in logarithmic time.

The B-tree generalizes the binary search tree, allowing for nodes with more than two children. Unlike other self-balancing binary search trees. It is also known as a height-balanced m-way tree.


Why B-tree?

The need for B-tree arose with the rise in the need for lesser time in accessing the physical storage media like a hard disk. The secondary storage devices are slower with a larger capacity. There was a need for such types of data structures that minimize the disk accesses.
Other data structures such as a binary search tree, avl tree, red-black tree, etc can store only one key in one node. If you have to store a large number of keys, then the height of such trees becomes very large and the access time increases.
The B-tree is well suited for storage systems that read and write relatively large blocks of data, such as disks. It is commonly used in databases and file systems.
However, B-tree can store many keys in a single node and can have multiple child nodes. This decreases the height significantly allowing faster disk accesses.

B-tree Properties

  1. For each node x, the keys are stored in increasing order.
  2. In each node, there is a boolean value x.leaf which is true if x is a leaf.
  3. If n is the order of the tree, each internal node can contain at most n – 1 keys along with a pointer to each child.
  4. Each node except root can have at most n children and at least n/2 children.
  5. All leaves have the same depth (i.e. height-h of the tree).
  6. The root has at least 2 children and contains a minimum of 1 key.
  7. If n ≥ 1, then for any n-key B-tree of height h and minimum degree t ≥ 2h ≥ logt (n+1)/2.



Searching for an element in a B-tree is the generalized form of searching an element in a Binary Search Tree. The following steps are followed.

  1. Starting from the root node, compare k with the first key of the node.
    If k = the first key of the node, return the node and the index.
  2. If k.leaf = true, return NULL (i.e. not found).
  3. If k < the first key of the root node, search the left child of this key recursively.
  4. If there is more than one key in the current node and k > the first key, compare k with the next key in the node.
    If k < next key, search the left child of this key (ie. k lies in between the first and the second keys).
    Else, search the right child of the key.
  5. Repeat steps 1 to 4 until the leaf is reached.

Searching Example

  1. Let us search key k = 18 in the tree below of degree 3.
  1. k is not found in the root so, compare it with the root key.
k is not found on the root node
  1. Since k > 15, go to the right child of the root node
Go to the right subtree
  1. Compare k with 16. Since k > 16, compare k with the next key 19.
Compare with the keys from left to right
  1. Since k < 19, k lies between 16 and 19. Search in the right child of 16 or the left child of 19.
k lies in between 16 and 18
  1. k is found
k is found

Algorithm for Searching an Element

BtreeSearch(x, k) i = 1 while i ≤ n[x] and k ≥ keyi[x] // n[x] means number of keys in x node do i = i + 1 if i n[x] and k = keyi[x] then return (x, i) if leaf [x] then return NIL else return BtreeSearch(ci[x], k)
Code language: JavaScript (javascript)

Searching Complexity on B Tree

  • Worst-case Time complexity: Θ(log n)
  • Average-case Time complexity: Θ(log n)
  • Best-case Time complexity: Θ(log n)
  • Average-case Space complexity: Θ(n)
  • Worst case Space complexity: Θ(n)

B Tree Applications

  • databases and file systems
  • to store blocks of data (secondary storage media)
  • multilevel indexing

C Examples

// Searching a key on a B-tree in C #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> #define MAX 3 #define MIN 2 struct BTreeNode { int val[MAX + 1], count; struct BTreeNode *link[MAX + 1]; }; struct BTreeNode *root; // Create a node struct BTreeNode *createNode(int val, struct BTreeNode *child) { struct BTreeNode *newNode; newNode = (struct BTreeNode *)malloc(sizeof(struct BTreeNode)); newNode->val[1] = val; newNode->count = 1; newNode->link[0] = root; newNode->link[1] = child; return newNode; } // Insert node void insertNode(int val, int pos, struct BTreeNode *node, struct BTreeNode *child) { int j = node->count; while (j > pos) { node->val[j + 1] = node->val[j]; node->link[j + 1] = node->link[j]; j--; } node->val[j + 1] = val; node->link[j + 1] = child; node->count++; } // Split node void splitNode(int val, int *pval, int pos, struct BTreeNode *node, struct BTreeNode *child, struct BTreeNode **newNode) { int median, j; if (pos > MIN) median = MIN + 1; else median = MIN; *newNode = (struct BTreeNode *)malloc(sizeof(struct BTreeNode)); j = median + 1; while (j <= MAX) { (*newNode)->val[j - median] = node->val[j]; (*newNode)->link[j - median] = node->link[j]; j++; } node->count = median; (*newNode)->count = MAX - median; if (pos <= MIN) { insertNode(val, pos, node, child); } else { insertNode(val, pos - median, *newNode, child); } *pval = node->val[node->count]; (*newNode)->link[0] = node->link[node->count]; node->count--; } // Set the value int setValue(int val, int *pval, struct BTreeNode *node, struct BTreeNode **child) { int pos; if (!node) { *pval = val; *child = NULL; return 1; } if (val < node->val[1]) { pos = 0; } else { for (pos = node->count; (val < node->val[pos] && pos > 1); pos--) ; if (val == node->val[pos]) { printf("Duplicates are not permitted\n"); return 0; } } if (setValue(val, pval, node->link[pos], child)) { if (node->count < MAX) { insertNode(*pval, pos, node, *child); } else { splitNode(*pval, pval, pos, node, *child, child); return 1; } } return 0; } // Insert the value void insert(int val) { int flag, i; struct BTreeNode *child; flag = setValue(val, &i, root, &child); if (flag) root = createNode(i, child); } // Search node void search(int val, int *pos, struct BTreeNode *myNode) { if (!myNode) { return; } if (val < myNode->val[1]) { *pos = 0; } else { for (*pos = myNode->count; (val < myNode->val[*pos] && *pos > 1); (*pos)--) ; if (val == myNode->val[*pos]) { printf("%d is found", val); return; } } search(val, pos, myNode->link[*pos]); return; } // Traverse then nodes void traversal(struct BTreeNode *myNode) { int i; if (myNode) { for (i = 0; i < myNode->count; i++) { traversal(myNode->link[i]); printf("%d ", myNode->val[i + 1]); } traversal(myNode->link[i]); } } int main() { int val, ch; insert(8); insert(9); insert(10); insert(11); insert(15); insert(16); insert(17); insert(18); insert(20); insert(23); traversal(root); printf("\n"); search(11, &ch, root); }
Code language: C/AL (cal)

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